Extraterrestrials of Rahab. - Foe of a star came.
Code by Anonymann
Originally a mythical name designating the abyss or the sea; subsequently applied to Egypt. Job ix. 13 and xxvi. 12 indicate that it is an alternative for "Tiamat," the Babylonian name of the dragon of darkness and chaos; Ps. lxxxix. 9 also indicates that "Rahab" is a name applied to the sea-monster, the dragon. According to a sentence preserved in the Talmud, "Rahab" is the name of the demon, the ruler of the sea ("Sar shel Yam"; B. B. 74b). It is used as a designation for Egypt in Ps. lxxxvii. 4 and Isa. xxx. 7. Similarly, in Isa. li. 9, which alludes to the exodus from Egypt, the destruction of Pharaoh is described as a smiting of the great sea-monster Rahab or the dragon Tannin. The juxtaposition of "Rahab" and "Tannin" in this passageexplains why "Rahab" was used as a designation for Egypt, which was otherwise called "Tannin" (see Ezek. xxix. 3, Hebr.). It must be noted that the Jewish exegetes deprived the word "Rahab" of its mythological character, and explained it as merely an equivalent for "arrogance," "noise," or "tumult" applied both to the roaring of the sea and to the arrogant noisiness and proud boasting of the Egyptians (comp. Abraham ibn Ezra on Ps. lxxxvii. 4 and lxxxix. 9).
Bibliography: Cheyne and Black, Encyc. Bibl.;
Smith, Dict. Bible;
Gunkel, Schöpfung und Chaos, pp. 30-40, Göttingen, 1895.W. B. J. Z. L.
By : Kaufmann Kohler
Septuagint translation of "Helel [read "Helal"] ben Shaḥar" (= "the brilliant one," "son of the morning"), name of the day, or morning, star, to whose mythical fate that of the King of Babylon is compared in the prophetic vision (Isa. xiv. 12-14). It is obvious that the prophet in attributing to the Babylonian king boastful pride, followed by a fall, borrowed the idea from a popular legend connected with the morning star; and Gunkel ("Schöpfung und Chaos," pp. 132-134) is undoubtedly correct when he holds that it represents a Babylonian or Hebrew star-myth similar to the Greek legend of Phaethon. The brilliancy of the morning star, which eclipses all other stars, but is not seen during the night, may easily have given rise to a myth such as was told of Ethana and Zu: he was led by his pride to strive for the highest seat among the star-gods on the northern mountain of the gods (comp. Ezek. xxviii. 14; Ps. xlviii. 3 [A.V. 2]), but was hurled down by the supreme ruler of the Babylonian Olympus. Stars were regarded throughout antiquity as living celestial beings (Job xxxviii. 7).
The familiarity of the people of Palestine with such a myth is shown by the legend, localized on Mount Hermon, the northern mountain of Palestine and possibly the original mountain of the gods in that country, of the fall of the angels under the leadership of Samḥazai (the heaven-seizer) and Azael (Enoch, vi. 6 et seq.; see Fall of Angels). Another legend represents Samḥazai, because he repented of his sin, as being suspended between heaven and earth (like a star) instead of being hurled down to Sheol (see Midr. Abḳir in Yalḳ. i. 44; Raymund Martin, "Pugio Fidei," p. 564). The Lucifer myth was transferred to Satan in the pre-Christian century, as may be learned from Vita Adæ et Evæ (12) and Slavonic Enoch (xxix. 4, xxxi. 4), where Satan-Sataniel (Samael?) is described as having been one of the archangels. Because he contrived "to make his throne higher than the clouds over the earth and resemble 'My power' on high," Satan-Sataniel was hurled down, with his hosts of angels, and since then he has been flying in the air continually above the abyss (comp. Test. Patr., Benjamin, 3; Ephes. ii. 2, vi. 12). Accordingly Tertullian ("Contra Marrionem," v. 11, 17), Origen ("Ezekiel Opera," iii. 356), and others, identify Lucifer with Satan, who also is represented as being "cast down from heaven" (Rev. xii. 7, 10; comp. Luke x. 18).
Bibliography: Cheyne, Encyc. Bibl.;
Duhm, Das Buch Jesaiah, 1892, p. 96.K.
By : Emil G. Hirsch Richard Gottheil Kaufmann Kohler Isaac Broyd
In the main, demonology among the Jews preserved its simple character as a popular belief, the demons being regarded as mischievous, but not as diabolical or as agencies of a power antagonistic to God. Even Ashmodai, or Asmodeus, the king of demons (Tobit iii. 8, vi. 14, Aramaic version), who kills the seven successive bridegrooms of Sara before their marital union, is but a personification of lust and murder; but there is nothing Satanic "that is, of the spirit of rebellion against God" in him; he is driven out by the recipe prescribed by the angel Raphael, and sent to Egypt and bound by Raphael (Tobit viii. 3). It was only at a certain period and within a certain circle that demonology received its specific character as part of the cosmic power of evil, and in opposition to angelology as part of the cosmic power of good.
Babylonian cosmogony describes the combat of Bel-Marduk with the chaos-monster Tiamat, the sea-dragon, the power of darkness whose defeat is the beginning of the world of light and order. The same monster appears in various Biblical passages as Rahab, the sea-monster; Tannin, the dragon of the sea; and Leviathan, the "crooked serpent" slain by Yhwh "with his sure and great and strong sword" (Isa. xxvii. 1, li. 9; Ps. lxxxix. 10, 11; Job xxvi. 12; Gunkel, "Schöpfung und Chaos," 1895, pp. 30-46 et seq.). While this mythological figure became in the course of time a metaphor symbolizing nations like Egypt (Ezek. xxix. 3; Ps. lxxxvii. 4), the monster remained a real being in the popular belief; and inasmuch as this conflicted with the monotheistic system, the battle of God or His angel Gabriel with Leviathan and Behemoth was transformed into a great eschatological drama which ended in the perfect triumph of divine justice (B. B. 75b). The Babylonian Tiamat, as Behemoth and Leviathan, became on the one hand infernal monsters devouring the wicked, and on the other food and cover for the righteous in heaven (see Leviathan). Nevertheless, the Mandæan and Gnostic heresies maintained the belief in these cosmic monsters (Brandt, "Mandäische Schriften," 1893, pp. 144 et seq.), and many descriptions of Gehenna in Jewish and Christian literature preserve traces of these. "Tartarus-holding" or "watching" demons of the lower regions (see Dieterich, l.c. pp. 35, 76 et seq.; Eschatology; Gehenna). In fact, the hosts of demons punishing the wicked in Gehenna are in the service of angels of divine justice, and though called "saṭanim" (Enoch xl. 7 et al.), belong to the category of angels rather than of demons. According to the Book of Jubilees, Noah learned from the angels (Raphael) the remedies against these diseases, and wrote them in a "Book of Healing", similar to the one ascribed to King Solomon (x. 5-12; Jellinek, "B. H." iii. 155 et seq., xxx. et seq.). The host of demons under Satan's direction accordingly seduce all heathen people to idolatry (Jubilees, vii. 27, x. 1, xi. 5, xv. 20, xxii. 17), but the end of Satan will be the healing and resurrection of the servants of the Lord (xxiii. 30).
The speculation regarding the nature and origin of these demons and their leaders led as early as the second pre-Christian century, in those fragments preserved under the name of the Book of Enoch, to the story of the fall of the angels (Enoch, vii.-viii.; lxix.). Like Beelzebub, or Lucifer (Isa. xiv. 12; compare Slavonic Enoch, xxix. 4), two hundred 'Irin or "watchers" fell, attracted by the beauty of the daughters of men (Gen. vi. 4); only tradition obviously differed as to the leader of the rebellious host, whether it was Azazel or Shamḥazai. At any rate, they acknowledged the supremacy of Satan (liii. 3, liv. 6), though occasionally many satans are mentioned (xl. 7 et al.), and these fallen angels became "the evil spirits" (xv. 8, xix. 19) who taught mankind all the arts of deception, witchcraft, and sin (vii.-viii., lxix.). But their children, the offspring of this mixture of an earthly and a celestial race, became, when slain, the hybrid race of disembodiedspirits or demons doing the work of destruction until the Day of Judgment (xvi. 1). Belial is another name for Satan found in the Book of Jubilees (xv. 33), in Sibyllines (iii. 63), and in Ascension of Isaiah (ii. 4), where he is also called "the prince of injustice" (Sar ha-Masṭemah), who rules over this world. Belial (or Beliar) occurs most frequently in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. He has "seven spirits of deception" in his service (Reuben, 2), and as author of all evil, "the spirit of hatred, darkness, deception, and error," he is the opponent of God, the "Father of Light," and of His Law (Simeon, 5; Levi, 19; Issachar, 6; Dan, 5; Zebulun, 9; Naphtali, 8; Gad, 4; Joseph, 20), and when "he and his evil spirits are crushed the heathen world will be converted to the belief in the Lord" (Simeon, 7; Zebulon, 9). Under this aspect the world appeared as the arena in which Satan contends with the Lord, the God of life everlasting, until "the great dragon, the old serpent, he that is called Devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world, shall be cast down and his angels with him" (Suk. 52a; Assumptio Mosis, xi.; Matt. xxv. 41; Rev. xii. 9).
Bibliography: Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc. s.v. Feldgeister und Dämonische;
L. Löw, in Ben Chananja, 1858, i. 150-154;
Hamburger, R. B. T. s.v. Geister;
Winer, B. R. s.v. Gespenster;
M. Kalisch, Commentary on Leviticus, 1872, ii. 310-319;
Weber, System der Altsynagogalen Theologie, Index;
Schorr, in He-?alu?, 1865, vii. 17 et seq.; 1869, viii. 8 et seq.;
Fuller, in Wace's Apocrypha, 1888, i. 176, 183 et seq.;
Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus, ii. 752-760, 771;
Kohut, Angelologie und Dämonologie in Ihrer Abhängigkeit vom Parsismus, 1896.E. G. H.G. K.